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  1. Content type: Research

    The risk of tumorigenicity is a hurdle for regenerative medicine using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Although teratoma formation is readily distinguishable, the malignant transformation of iPSC deriv...

    Authors: Keiko Sugai, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Tomoko Shofuda, Hayato Fukusumi, Soya Kawabata, Yuichiro Nishiyama, Yuichiro Higuchi, Kenji Kawai, Miho Isoda, Daisuke Kanematsu, Tomoko Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Jun Kohyama, Akio Iwanami, Hiroshi Suemizu, Eiji Ikeda, Morio Matsumoto…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:85

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  2. Content type: Research

    Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) regulates axonal growth cone extension, and increased CRMP2 phosphorylation may lead to axonal degeneration. Axonal and synaptic pathology is an important feature ...

    Authors: Huayang Xing, Yun-An Lim, Joyce R. Chong, Jasinda H. Lee, Dag Aarsland, Clive G. Ballard, Paul T. Francis, Christopher P. Chen and Mitchell K. P. Lai

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:84

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  3. Content type: Research

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to participate in numerous brain functions, such as memory storage, emotion, attention, as well as perception of acute and chronic pain. ACC-dependent brain functions o...

    Authors: Li-qing Ma, Li Ning, Zhiru Wang and Ying-wei Wang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:82

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  4. Content type: Research

    Acute ischemic stroke causes significant chronic disability worldwide. We designed this study to clarify the mechanism by which hypothermia helps alleviate acute ischemic stroke. In a middle cerebral artery oc...

    Authors: Jung Ho Lee, Eun Jang Yoon, Jeho Seo, Adriana Kavoussi, Yong Eun Chung, Sung Phil Chung, Incheol Park, Chul Hoon Kim and Je Sung You

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:81

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  5. Content type: Research

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) exhibit a functional interaction, as CB1 regulates pre-synaptic glutamate release and mGluR5 activation increases endocannabinoi...

    Authors: Edleusa M. L. Batista, Juliana G. Doria, Talita H. Ferreira-Vieira, Juliana Alves-Silva, Stephen S. G. Ferguson, Fabricio A. Moreira and Fabiola M. Ribeiro

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:80

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  6. Content type: Research

    The temporal organization of activity/rest or sleep/wake rhythms for mammals is regulated by the interaction of light/dark cycle and circadian clocks. The neural and molecular mechanisms that confine the activ...

    Authors: Qun-Yong Zhou, Katherine J. Burton, Matthew L. Neal, Yu Qiao, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy, Yanjun Sun, Xiangmin Xu, Yuanye Ma and Xiaohan Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:78

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  7. Content type: Research

    The C (-1019) G rs6295 promoter polymorphism of the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor gene is associated with major depression in several but not all studies, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms mediate resil...

    Authors: Christine Luckhart, Tristan J. Philippe, Brice Le François, Faranak Vahid-Ansari, Sean D. Geddes, Jean-Claude Béïque, Diane C. Lagace, Mireille Daigle and Paul R. Albert

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:77

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  8. Content type: Research

    Mice heterozygous for a complete deletion (CD) equivalent to the most common deletion found in individuals with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) recapitulate relevant features of the neurocognitive phenotype, su...

    Authors: Cristina Borralleras, Susana Mato, Thierry Amédée, Carlos Matute, Christophe Mulle, Luis A. Pérez-Jurado and Victoria Campuzano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:76

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  9. Content type: Research

    Metabolic defects and neuronal apoptosis initiated by traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to subsequent neurodegeneration. They are all regulated by mechanisms centered around mitochondrion. Type-1 cannabi...

    Authors: Zhen Xu, Xiao-Ai Lv, Qun Dai, Yu-Qing Ge and Jie Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:75

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  10. Content type: Research

    Itch and pain share similar mechanisms. It has been well documented that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for pain-related perception. ACC has also been approved to be a potential pruritus-asso...

    Authors: Ting-Ting Zhang, Feng-Yan Shen, Li-Qing Ma, Wen Wen, Bin Wang, Yuan-Zhi Peng, Zhi-Ru Wang and Xuan Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:73

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  11. Content type: Research

    Astrocytes have been reported to exist in two states, the resting and the reactive states. Morphological changes in the reactive state of astrocytes include an increase in thickness and number of processes, an...

    Authors: Moonseok Choi, Sangzin Ahn, Eun-Jeong Yang, Hyunju Kim, Young Hae Chong and Hye-Sun Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:72

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  12. Content type: Research

    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are involved in the control of sleep-wake states. Our previous studies have indicated that calcium (Ca2+) modulation in the DRN plays an important role in ra...

    Authors: Su-Ying Cui, Sheng-Jie Li, Xiang-Yu Cui, Xue-Qiong Zhang, Bin Yu, Yuan-Li Huang, Qing Cao, Ya-Ping Xu, Guang Yang, Hui Ding, Jin-Zhi Song, Hui Ye, Zhao-Fu Sheng, Zi-Jun Wang and Yong-He Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:71

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  13. Content type: Research

    Lissencephaly, or smooth brain, is a severe congenital brain malformation that is thought to be associated with impaired neuronal migration during corticogenesis. However, the exact etiology of lissencephaly i...

    Authors: Yohei Bamba, Tomoko Shofuda, Mitsuhiro Kato, Ritsuko K. Pooh, Yoko Tateishi, Jun-ichi Takanashi, Hidetsuna Utsunomiya, Miho Sumida, Daisuke Kanematsu, Hiroshi Suemizu, Yuichiro Higuchi, Wado Akamatsu, Denis Gallagher, Freda D. Miller, Mami Yamasaki, Yonehiro Kanemura…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:70

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  14. Content type: Research

    In neuronal axons, the ratio of motile-to-stationary mitochondria is tightly regulated by neuronal activation, thereby meeting the need for local calcium buffering and maintaining the ATP supply. However, the ...

    Authors: Cana Park, Seol-Ae Lee, Ji-Ho Hong, Yeongjun Suh, Sung Jin Park, Bo Kyoung Suh, Youngsik Woo, Jinhyuk Choi, Ji-Won Huh, You-Me Kim and Sang Ki Park

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:69

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  15. Content type: Research

    Cultured neuronal cell lines can express properties of mature neurons if properly differentiated. Although the precise mechanisms underlying neuronal differentiation are not fully understood, the expression an...

    Authors: Zaven O’Bryant, Tiandong Leng, Mingli Liu, Koichi Inoue, Kiara T. Vann and Zhi-gang Xiong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:68

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  16. Content type: Research

    The development of the nervous system involves an initially exuberant production of neurons that make an excessive number of synaptic contacts. The initial overproduction of synapses promotes connectivity. Heb...

    Authors: Laura Nadal, Neus Garcia, Erica Hurtado, Anna Simó, Marta Tomàs, Maria A. Lanuza, Manel Santafé and Josep Tomàs

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:67

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  17. Content type: Research

    This study was designed to determine the role of the A1 adenosine receptors in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced secondary brain injury and the underlying mechanisms.

    Authors: Weiwei Zhai, Dongdong Chen, Haitao Shen, Zhouqing Chen, Haiying Li, Zhengquan Yu and Gang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:66

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  18. Content type: Research

    During corticogenesis, genetic programs encoded in progenitor cells at different developmental stages and inherited in postmitotic neurons specify distinct layer and area identities. Transcription factor Zbtb2...

    Authors: Anton B. Tonchev, Tran Cong Tuoc, Eva H. Rosenthal, Michèle Studer and Anastassia Stoykova

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:65

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  19. Content type: Research

    Amyloid precursor protein knockout mice (APP-KO) have impaired differentiation of amacrine and horizontal cells. APP is part of a gene family and its paralogue amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) has both...

    Authors: Virginie Dinet, Giuseppe D. Ciccotosto, Kimberley Delaunay, Céline Borras, Isabelle Ranchon-Cole, Corinne Kostic, Michèle Savoldelli, Mohamed El Sanharawi, Laurent Jonet, Caroline Pirou, Na An, Marc Abitbol, Yvan Arsenijevic, Francine Behar-Cohen, Roberto Cappai and Frédéric Mascarelli

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:64

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  20. Content type: Research

    Endothelial cell (EC) released microvesicles (EMVs) can affect various target cells by transferring carried genetic information. Astrocytes are the main components of the blood brain barrier (BBB) structure in...

    Authors: Qunwen Pan, Caixia He, Hua Liu, Xiaorong Liao, Bingyan Dai, Yanfang Chen, Yi Yang, Bin Zhao, Ji Bihl and Xiaotang Ma

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:63

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  21. Content type: Research

    AP-2δ is the most divergent member of the Activating Protein-2 (TFAP2) family of transcription factors. AP-2δ is restricted to specific regions of the CNS, including a subset of ganglion cells in the retina. R...

    Authors: Xiaodong Li, Frédéric Gaillard, Elizabeth A. Monckton, Darryl D. Glubrecht, Amit R. L. Persad, Markus Moser, Yves Sauvé and Roseline Godbout

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:62

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  22. Content type: Research

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is the main cause of dementia globally. AD is associated with increased oxidative stress, resulting from imbalance in p...

    Authors: Meryl S. Lillenes, Alberto Rabano, Mari Støen, Tahira Riaz, Dorna Misaghian, Linda Møllersen, Ying Esbensen, Clara-Cecilie Günther, Per Selnes, Vidar T. V. Stenset, Tormod Fladby and Tone Tønjum

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:61

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  23. Content type: Research

    Glycine is known to protect against neuronal death. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. The microRNA-301a is involved in both biological and pathological processes. But it is not known ...

    Authors: Juan Chen, Yang Zhuang, Zhi-Feng Zhang, Shu Wang, Ping Jin, Chunjiang He, Peng-Chao Hu, Ze-Fen Wang, Zhi-Qiang Li, Guang-Ming Xia, Gang Li, Yuan Wang and Qi Wan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:59

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  24. Content type: Research

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by multiple symptoms including neuropsychological deficits such as seizures, intellectual disability, and autism. TSC is inherited in...

    Authors: Su-Kyeong Hwang, Jae-Hyung Lee, Jung-eun Yang, Chae-Seok Lim, Jin-A Lee, Yong-Seok Lee, Kyungmin Lee and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:56

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  25. Content type: Review

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a neurotropic virus. It induces neurotoxicity and subsequent brain pathologies in different brain cells. Addiction to recreational drugs remarkably affects the initiat...

    Authors: Vidya Sagar, Venkata Subba Rao Atluri, Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel and Madhavan Nair

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:57

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  26. Content type: Research

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable chronic mental disorder with significant abnormalities in brain function. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes that schizophrenia originates in the prenatal period due...

    Authors: Zhengrong Zhang, Fanfan Zheng, Yang You, Yuanlin Ma, Tianlan Lu, Weihua Yue and Dai Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:54

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  27. Content type: Research

    Appropriate vertical movement is critical for the survival of flying animals. Although negative geotaxis (moving away from Earth) driven by gravity has been extensively studied, much less is understood concern...

    Authors: Ji-Eun Bae, Sunhoe Bang, Soohong Min, Sang-Hyup Lee, Soon-Hwan Kwon, Youngseok Lee, Yong-Ho Lee, Jongkyeong Chung and Kwon-Seok Chae

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:55

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  28. Content type: Short report

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. ...

    Authors: Jennifer Stanic, Manuela Mellone, Maria Daniela Cirnaru, Maria Perez-Carrion, Elisa Zianni, Monica Di Luca, Fabrizio Gardoni and Giovanni Piccoli

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:53

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  29. Content type: Research

    Small promoters that recapitulate endogenous gene expression patterns are important for basic, preclinical, and now clinical research. Recently, there has been a promising revival of gene therapy for diseases ...

    Authors: Charles N. de Leeuw, Andrea J. Korecki, Garrett E. Berry, Jack W. Hickmott, Siu Ling Lam, Tess C. Lengyell, Russell J. Bonaguro, Lisa J. Borretta, Vikramjit Chopra, Alice Y. Chou, Cletus A. D’Souza, Olga Kaspieva, Stéphanie Laprise, Simone C. McInerny, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Magdalena I. Swanson-Newman…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:52

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  30. Content type: Research

    Alcohol abuse produces an enormous impact on health, society, and the economy. Currently, there are very limited therapies available, largely due to the poor understanding of mechanisms underlying alcohol use ...

    Authors: Lidia De Filippis, Apoorva Halikere, Heather McGowan, Jennifer C. Moore, Jay A. Tischfield, Ronald P. Hart and Zhiping P. Pang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:51

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  31. Content type: Short report

    Studies have indicated that depressive disorders are observed frequently in dentists. It’s suggested that dentists encounter numerous sources of stress in their professional career. We noticed that the noises ...

    Authors: Yujie Dong, Ying Zhou, Xixia Chu, Shiqing Chen, Lei Chen, Beimeng Yang, Xu Zhang, Lin Wang, Shuai Wang, Jingyu Lou, Qing Deng, Li Wang, Zheyi Cao, Jianan Wang, Jiaxin Xie, Tatiana Serdyuk…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:50

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  32. Content type: Research

    Recent evidence indicates that histamine, acting on histamine 1 receptor (H1R), resets the circadian clock in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) by increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) throu...

    Authors: Yoon Sik Kim, Young-Beom Kim, Woong Bin Kim, Seung Won Lee, Seog Bae Oh, Hee-Chul Han, C. Justin Lee, Christopher S. Colwell and Yang In Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:49

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  33. Content type: Research

    Macrophages play an important role in the inflammatory responses involved with spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously demonstrated that infiltrated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) engulf myelin d...

    Authors: Lei Guo, Alyssa J. Rolfe, Xi Wang, Wenjiao Tai, Zhijian Cheng, Kai Cao, Xiaoming Chen, Yunsheng Xu, Dongming Sun, Jinhua Li, Xijing He, Wise Young, Jianqing Fan and Yi Ren

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:48

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  34. Content type: Research

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors form a large and diverse family of acetylcholine gated ion channels having diverse roles in the central nervous system. Maturation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors is ...

    Authors: Yael Ben-David, Tehila Mizrachi, Sarah Kagan, Tamar Krisher, Emiliano Cohen, Talma Brenner and Millet Treinin

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:47

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  35. Content type: Research

    Proper dendrite patterning is critical for the receiving and processing of information in the nervous system. Cell-autonomous molecules have been extensively studied in dendrite morphogenesis; however, the reg...

    Authors: Xiaoting Li, Yan Wang, Huan Wang, Tongtong Liu, Jing Guo, Wei Yi and Yan Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:46

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  36. Content type: Research

    Although the roles of p21-activated serine/threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) have been reported in some neurodegenerative diseases, details regarding neurodegeneration are still limited. Hence, we tried to determine t...

    Authors: Hwanhee Kim, Jun-Young Oh, Sun-Lim Choi, Yeon-Ju Nam, Anna Jo, Ara Kwon, Eun-Young Shin, Eung-Gook Kim and Hyong Kyu Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:45

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  37. Content type: Research

    Long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathological processes of nervous system diseases. NONRATT021972 is an lncRNA. This study explores the effects of lncRNA NONRATT021972 small interfere...

    Authors: Shuangmei Liu, Lifang Zou, Jinyan Xie, Wei Xie, Shiyao Wen, Qiuyu Xie, Yun Gao, Guilin Li, Chunping Zhang, Changshui Xu, Hong Xu, Bing Wu, Qiulan Lv, Xi Zhang, Shouyu Wang, Yun Xue…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:44

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  38. Content type: Review

    The presence of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the production of new neurons in the adult brain have received great attention from scientists and the public because of implications to brain plasticity and their ...

    Authors: Jae Ryun Ryu, Caroline Jeeyeon Hong, Joo Yeon Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Woong Sun and Seong-Woon Yu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:43

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  39. Content type: Research

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the major causes of stroke. After onset of ICH, massive infiltration of macrophages is detected in the peri-hematoma regions. Still, the function of these macrophages i...

    Authors: Hyunjung Min, Yong Ho Jang, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seong-Woon Yu and Sung Joong Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:42

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  40. Content type: Research

    Diabetes-associated cognition decline is one of central nervous system complications in diabetic mellitus, while its pathogenic mechanism remains unclear. In this study, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabo...

    Authors: Yongquan Zheng, Yunjun Yang, Baijun Dong, Hong Zheng, Xiaodong Lin, Yao Du, Xiaokun Li, Liangcai Zhao and Hongchang Gao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:40

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  41. Content type: Research

    Neuronal and glial differentiation in the murine hypothalamus is not complete at birth, but continues over the first two weeks postnatally. Nutritional status and Leptin deficiency can influence the maturation...

    Authors: Andrew P. Holmes, Shi Quan Wong, Michela Pulix, Kirsty Johnson, Niamh S. Horton, Patricia Thomas, João Pedro de Magalhães and Antonius Plagge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:39

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  42. Content type: Research

    Activation of NMDA receptors can induce iron movement into neurons by the small GTPase Dexras1 via the divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1). This pathway under pathological conditions such as NMDA excitotoxicit...

    Authors: Rachel S. White, Anup K. Bhattacharya, Yong Chen, Madeleine Byrd, Mary F. McMullen, Steven J. Siegel, Gregory C. Carlson and Sangwon F. Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:38

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  43. Content type: Research

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is a major cause of symmetrical intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), an impairment in cell proliferation during prenatal development that results i...

    Authors: Shintaro Naganos, Kohei Ueno, Junjiro Horiuchi and Minoru Saitoe

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:37

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  44. Content type: Research

    When consolidated memories are retrieved, they become labile and a new protein synthesis-dependent reconsolidation process is required to restabilize these memories. So far, most studies conducted on reconsoli...

    Authors: Reiko Okubo-Suzuki, Yoshito Saitoh, Mohammad Shehata, Qi Zhao, Hiroshi Enomoto and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2016 9:36

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