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  1. Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder characterized by delusion, hallucination, and cognitive deficits. We have previously identified from schizophrenia patients a loss-of-function mutation Arg215→His21...

    Authors: Dong-Yun Jiang, Zheng Wu, Cody Tieu Forsyth, Yi Hu, Siu-Pok Yee and Gong Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:31

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a selective loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Recent studies have shown that mutations in SQSTM1 are linked to ...

    Authors: Shun Mitsui, Asako Otomo, Masahisa Nozaki, Suzuka Ono, Kai Sato, Ryohei Shirakawa, Hiroaki Adachi, Masashi Aoki, Gen Sobue, Hui-Fang Shang and Shinji Hadano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:30

    Content type: Research

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  3. Alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) is one of the key contributors in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis. Despite the fact that increased α-SYN levels are considered one of the key contributors in developing PD, the mo...

    Authors: Goun Je, Subhrangshu Guhathakurta, Seung Pil Yun, Han Seok Ko and Yoon-Seong Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:29

    Content type: Short report

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  4. A high-fat diet (HFD) causes obesity by promoting excessive energy intake, and simultaneously, by disturbing the timing of energy intake. Restoring the feeding pattern is sufficient to prevent HFD-induced obes...

    Authors: Tsutomu Sasaki, Rika Numano, Hiromi Yokota-Hashimoto, Sho Matsui, Naobumi Kimura, Hideyuki Takeuchi and Tadahiro Kitamura

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:28

    Content type: Research

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  5. Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Maeta, Satoko Hattori, Junji Ikutomo, Hironori Edamatsu, Shymaa E. Bilasy, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa and Tohru Kataoka

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:27

    Content type: Research

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  6. One of the unmet clinical needs in demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is to provide therapies that actively enhance the process of myelin regeneration (remyelination) in the central nervous...

    Authors: Marie Dittmer, Andrew Young, Thomas O’Hagan, George Eleftheriadis, Peter Bankhead, Yvonne Dombrowski, Reinhold J. Medina and Denise C. Fitzgerald

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:25

    Content type: Short report

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  7. This study describes the functional interaction between the Cav3.1 and Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels and cytoskeletal spectrin (α/β) and ankyrin B proteins. The interactions were identified utilizing a proteo...

    Authors: Agustin Garcia-Caballero, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Victoria Hodgkinson, Junting Huang, Lina Chen, Ivana A. Souza, Stuart Cain, Jennifer Kass, Sascha Alles, Terrance P. Snutch and Gerald W. Zamponi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:24

    Content type: Research

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  8. The trigemino-thalamic (T-T) and trigemino-parabrachial (T-P) pathways are strongly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and affective/emotional aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. These T-T and T-P p...

    Authors: Chun-Kui Zhang, Zhi-Hong Li, Yu Qiao, Ting Zhang, Ya-Cheng Lu, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li and Jin-Lian Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:22

    Content type: Research

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  9. Morphine tolerance is a challenging clinical problem that limits the use of morphine in pain treatment, but the mechanisms of morphine tolerance remain unclear. Recent research indicates that long noncoding RN...

    Authors: Jiali Shao, Jian Wang, Jiangju Huang, Chang Liu, Yundan Pan, Qulian Guo and Wangyuan Zou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:21

    Content type: Research

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  10. Neurodegenerative disorders are frequent, incurable diseases characterised by abnormal protein accumulation and progressive neuronal loss. Despite their growing prevalence, the underlying pathomechanism remain...

    Authors: János Bencze, Gábor Miklós Mórotz, Woosung Seo, Viktor Bencs, János Kálmán, Christopher Charles John Miller and Tibor Hortobágyi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:20

    Content type: Review

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  11. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neurotoxicity mediated by the accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) oligomers, causing neuronal loss and progressive cognitive decline. Genetic deletion or chronic phar...

    Authors: Khaled S. Abd-Elrahman, Alison Hamilton, Maryam Vasefi and Stephen S. G. Ferguson

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:19

    Content type: Short report

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  12. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of thick samples using superresolution fluorescence microscopy remains challenging due to high level of background noise and fast photobleaching of fluorescence probes. We...

    Authors: Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang, Yeong-Dae Kwon, Jaehoon Shim, Siyong Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:17

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  13. Our previous studies demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency (VAD) can impair the postnatal cognitive function of rats by damaging the hippocampus. The present study examined the effects of retinoic acid (RA) o...

    Authors: Wei Jiang, Min Guo, Min Gong, Li Chen, Yang Bi, Yun Zhang, Yuan Shi, Ping Qu, Youxue Liu, Jie Chen and Tingyu Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:14

    Content type: Research

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  14. The transcriptional repressor DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator) is a multifunctional neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) that controls Ca2+ and protein homeostasis through gene regulation and p...

    Authors: Alejandro López-Hurtado, Daniel F. Burgos, Paz González, Xose M. Dopazo, Valentina González, Alberto Rábano, Britt Mellström and Jose R. Naranjo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:13

    Content type: Research

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  15. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is primarily localized in the outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid-synthesizing cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems. One of the protein’s main function...

    Authors: Xu-bo Li, An Liu, Le Yang, Kun Zhang, Yu-mei Wu, Ming-gao Zhao and Shui-bing Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:12

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  16. Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain state characterized by hyperalgesia, allodynia, and spontaneous pain. Accumulating evidence has indicated that the microglial Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and autopha...

    Authors: Yibo Piao, Do Hyeong Gwon, Dong-Wook Kang, Tae Woong Hwang, Nara Shin, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Hyo Jung Shin, Yuhua Yin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Jinpyo Hong, Hyun-Woo Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Sang-Ha Oh and Dong Woon Kim

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:11

    Content type: Research

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  17. Growing evidence has indicated that prefibrillar form of soluble amyloid beta (sAβ1–42) is the major causative factor in the synaptic dysfunction associated with AD. The molecular changes leading to presynaptic d...

    Authors: Daehun Park and Sunghoe Chang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:10

    Content type: Short report

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  18. Ghrelin exerts a wide range of physiological actions throughout the body and appears to be a promising target for disease therapy. Endogenous ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) are present in extrahypothalamic sites in...

    Authors: Yukari Suda, Naoko Kuzumaki, Takefumi Sone, Michiko Narita, Kenichi Tanaka, Yusuke Hamada, Chizuru Iwasawa, Masahiro Shibasaki, Aya Maekawa, Miri Matsuo, Wado Akamatsu, Nobutaka Hattori, Hideyuki Okano and Minoru Narita

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:6

    Content type: Research

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  19. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a critical factor leading to a poor prognosis for ischemic stroke patients. ω-3 fatty acid supplements taken as part of a daily diet have been shown to improve the...

    Authors: Gang Zuo, Dongping Zhang, Rutao Mu, Haitao Shen, Xiang Li, Zhong Wang, Haiying Li and Gang Chen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:9

    Content type: Research

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  20. We examined the neuroprotective efficacy of the poly-arginine peptide R18 and its D-enantiomer R18D in a perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) model in P7 Sprague-Dawley rats. R18 and R18D peptides were administere...

    Authors: Adam B. Edwards, Jane L. Cross, Ryan S. Anderton, Neville W. Knuckey and Bruno P. Meloni

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:8

    Content type: Research

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  21. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is ...

    Authors: Valerie T. Y. Tan, Bruce G. Mockett, Shane M. Ohline, Karen D. Parfitt, Hollie E. Wicky, Katie Peppercorn, Lucia Schoderboeck, Mohamad Fairuz bin Yahaya, Warren P. Tate, Stephanie M. Hughes and Wickliffe C. Abraham

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:7

    Content type: Research

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  22. The epithalamus, which is dorsal to the thalamus, consists of the habenula, pineal gland and third ventricle choroid plexus and plays important roles in the stress response and sleep–wake cycle in vertebrates....

    Authors: Bin Liu, Kaixing Zhou, Xiaojing Wu and Chunjie Zhao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:5

    Content type: Research

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  23. Neuronal inhibition is mediated by glycine and/or GABA. Inferior colliculus (IC) neurons receive glycinergic and GABAergic inputs, whereas inhibition in hippocampus (HC) predominantly relies on GABA. Astrocyte...

    Authors: Elsa Ghirardini, Simon L. Wadle, Vanessa Augustin, Jasmin Becker, Sina Brill, Julia Hammerich, Gerald Seifert and Jonathan Stephan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:4

    Content type: Research

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  24. Multiple sclerosis is characterized by tissue atrophy involving the brain and the spinal cord, where reactive inflammation contributes to the neurodegenerative processes. Recently, the presence of synapse alte...

    Authors: M. Medelin, V. Giacco, A. Aldinucci, G. Castronovo, E. Bonechi, A. Sibilla, M. Tanturli, M. Torcia, L. Ballerini, F. Cozzolino and C. Ballerini

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:3

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  25. The adult brain actively controls its metabolic homeostasis via the circulatory system at the blood brain barrier interface. The mechanisms underlying the functional coupling from neuron to vessel remain poorl...

    Authors: Gregory W. Kirschen, Rachel Kéry, Hanxiao Liu, Afrinash Ahamad, Liang Chen, Wendy Akmentin, Ramya Kumar, Joel Levine, Qiaojie Xiong and Shaoyu Ge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:2

    Content type: Methodology

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  26. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disease which is characterized by a deficit in social interactions and communication with repetitive and restrictive behavior. In altered cells, metabolic...

    Authors: Alexandre Vallée and Jean-Noël Vallée

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2018 11:1

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  27. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy in the current form is hard to be used to image the neural connectivity of thick tissue samples due to problems such as slow imaging speed, severe photobleaching of flu...

    Authors: Jongjin Lee, Sangjun Park, Wooyoung Kang and Sungchul Hohng

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:63

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. In Drosophila, precise regulation of BMP signaling is essential for normal synaptic growth at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and neuronal survival in the adult brain. However, the molecular mechanisms un...

    Authors: Keunjung Heo, Minyeop Nahm, Min-Jung Lee, Young-Eun Kim, Chang-Seok Ki, Seung Hyun Kim and Seungbok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:62

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been shown to share similar molecular signatures, including new gene expression. Calpain is a Ca2+-dependent protease that exerts its effects through the...

    Authors: Taikai Nagayoshi, Kiichiro Isoda, Nori Mamiya and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:61

    Content type: Research

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  30. The tree shrew, as a primate-like animal model, has been used for studying high brain functions such as social emotion and spatial learning memory. However, little is known about the excitatory synaptic transm...

    Authors: Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Jing-Shan Lu, Tao Chen and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:58

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  31. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity. While accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) and hyper-phosphorylation of tau are parts of the et...

    Authors: Kyoung-Doo Hwang, Myeong Seong Bak, Sang Jeong Kim, Sangmyung Rhee and Yong-Seok Lee

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:57

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. Accumulating evidence suggests that subcellular-scale structures such as dendritic spine and mitochondria may be involved in the pathogenesis/pathophysiology of schizophrenia and intellectual disability. Previ...

    Authors: Akito Nakao, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Koji Ohira, Hideo Hagihara, Tsuyoshi Takagi, Nobuteru Usuda, Shunsuke Ishii, Kazuyoshi Murata and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:60

    Content type: Research

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  33. Protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ), a constitutively active, atypical protein kinase C isoform, maintains a high level of expression in the brain after the induction of learning and long-term potentiation (LTP). Fur...

    Authors: Nam-Kyung Yu, Heesoo Uhm, Jaehoon Shim, Jun-Hyeok Choi, Sangsu Bae, Todd Charlton Sacktor, Sungchul Hohng and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:56

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  34. Genomic variation includes single-nucleotide variants, small insertions or deletions (indels), and copy number variants (CNVs). CNVs affect gene expression by altering the genome structure and transposable ele...

    Authors: Yuka Hama, Masataka Katsu, Ichigaku Takigawa, Ichiro Yabe, Masaaki Matsushima, Ikuko Takahashi, Takayuki Katayama, Jun Utsumi and Hidenao Sasaki

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:54

    Content type: Research

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  35. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is one of the main reasons that cause neuronal damage and neonatal death. Several studies have shown that tanshinone I (TsI), one of the major ingredients of Danshen, exerts potential...

    Authors: Chunfang Dai, Yannan Liu and Zhifang Dong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:52

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel (CAAC) that is expressed broadly in mammalian tissues including the brain. We have previously reported that Best1 is expressed in hippocampal astrocyte...

    Authors: Soo-Jin Oh, Junsung Woo, Young-Sun Lee, Minhee Cho, Eunju Kim, Nam-Chul Cho, Jae-Yong Park, Ae Nim Pae, C. Justin Lee and Eun Mi Hwang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:51

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  37. Alterations in the strength of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus is believed to serve a vital function in the storage and recall of new information in the mammalian brain. These alterations involve the re...

    Authors: Fredrick E. Henry, William Hockeimer, Alex Chen, Shreesh P. Mysore and Michael A. Sutton

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:50

    Content type: Research

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  38. Dopamine is important for motor control and involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm. We previously found that dopamine-deficient (DD) mice became hyperactive in a novel environment 72 h after the last i...

    Authors: Masayo Fujita, Yoko Hagino, Taishi Takeda, Shinya Kasai, Miho Tanaka, Yukio Takamatsu, Kazuto Kobayashi and Kazutaka Ikeda

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:49

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  39. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is an important glycosaminoglycan and is mainly found in the extracellular matrix as CS proteoglycans. In the brain, CS proteoglycans are highly concentrated in perineuronal nets (PNNs...

    Authors: Nozomu Yoshioka, Shinji Miyata, Atsushi Tamada, Yumi Watanabe, Asami Kawasaki, Hiroshi Kitagawa, Keizo Takao, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Kosei Takeuchi and Michihiro Igarashi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:47

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  40. Common pathological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) include cytoplasmic aggregation of several RNA-binding proteins. Out of these RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43, FUS/TLS and RGNEF have been shown...

    Authors: Zachary C. E. Hawley, Danae Campos-Melo and Michael J. Strong

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2017 10:46

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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