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  1. Widespread sleep deprivation is a continuing public health problem in the United States and worldwide affecting adolescents and adults. Acute sleep deprivation results in decrements in spatial memory and cogni...

    Authors: Marie E. Gaine, Ethan Bahl, Snehajyoti Chatterjee, Jacob J. Michaelson, Ted Abel and Lisa C. Lyons
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:125
  2. To understand the role of intracellular zinc ion (Zn2+) dysregulation in mediating age-related neurodegenerative changes, particularly neurotoxicity resulting from the generation of excessive neurotoxic amyloid-β...

    Authors: Wen-bo Chen, Yu-xiang Wang, Hong-gang Wang, Di An, Dan Sun, Pan Li, Tao Zhang, Wan-ge Lu and Yan-qiang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:124
  3. Cerebral ischemia, a common cerebrovascular disease, is characterized by functional deficits and apoptotic cell death. Autophagy, a type of programmed cell death, plays critical roles in controlling neuronal d...

    Authors: Yuan Yao, Yingshi Ji, Jinghong Ren, Huanyu Liu, Rajesh Khanna and Li Sun
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:123
  4. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, with aging being considered the greatest risk factor for developing PD. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is known to participate in the aging ...

    Authors: Tae-Young Ha, Yu Ree Choi, Hye Rin Noh, Seon-Heui Cha, Jae-Bong Kim and Sang Myun Park
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:122
  5. Accumulating evidence indicates that the actin regulator cofilin is overactivated in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), but whether this abnormality contributes to synaptic and cognitive impairments in AD is unclear. I...

    Authors: Haiwang Zhang, Youssif Ben Zablah, An Liu, Dongju Lee, Haorui Zhang, Yanghong Meng, Changxi Zhou, Xingde Liu, Yiming Wang and Zhengping Jia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:121
  6. Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is a malformation of the cerebral cortex with poorly-defined epileptogenic zones (EZs), and poor surgical outcome in FCD is associated with inaccurate localization of the EZ. Hen...

    Authors: Arpna Srivastava, Krishan Kumar, Jyotirmoy Banerjee, Manjari Tripathi, Vivek Dubey, Devina Sharma, Nitin Yadav, M. C. Sharma, Sanjeev Lalwani, Ramesh Doddamani, P. Sarat Chandra and Aparna Banerjee Dixit
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:120
  7. Epigenetic abnormalities play a crucial role in many tumors, including glioma. RNA methylation occurs as an epigenetic modification similar to DNA methylation and histone modification. m6A methylation is the most...

    Authors: Ting Pan, Fan Wu, Liwen Li, Shiyan Wu, Fang Zhou, Ping Zhang, Caixing Sun and Liang Xia
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:119
  8. Anxiety disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, and the change in the activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is considered as the underlying pathological mechanism. Parvalbumin-expressing (PV+) i...

    Authors: Ying Sun, Le Ma, Jianhua Chen, Weidi Wang, Shiyu Peng, Ying Cheng, Yu Zhang, Jinghong Chen and Peijun Ju
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:118
  9. We have previously reported that cellular prion protein (PrPC) can down-regulate NMDA receptor activity and in a copper dependent manner. Here, we employed AAV9 to introduce murine cellular prion protein into mou...

    Authors: Sun Huang, Stefanie A. Black, Junting Huang, Peter K. Stys and Gerald W. Zamponi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:117
  10. Bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening infectious disease with severe neurological sequelae and a high mortality rate, in which Escherichia coli is one of the primary Gram-negative etiological bacteria. Menin...

    Authors: Jiyang Fu, Liang Li, Dong Huo, Ruicheng Yang, Bo Yang, Bojie Xu, Xiaopei Yang, Menghong Dai, Chen Tan, Huanchun Chen and Xiangru Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:116
  11. T-type calcium channels are important regulators of neuronal excitability. The mammalian brain expresses three T-type channel isoforms (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3) with distinct biophysical properties that are ...

    Authors: Fernando R. Fernandez, Mircea C. Iftinca, Gerald W. Zamponi and Ray W. Turner
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:115
  12. Clock genes not only regulate the circadian rhythm of physiological activities but also participate in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Previous studies have documented the abnormal expression of clock genes...

    Authors: Hao Wu, Yong Liu, Lishuo Liu, Qiang Meng, Changwang Du, Kuo Li, Shan Dong, Yong Zhang, Huanfa Li and Hua Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:113
  13. Memory and long term potentiation require de novo protein synthesis. A key regulator of this process is mTORC1, a complex comprising the mTOR kinase. Growth factors activate mTORC1 via a pathway involving PI3-...

    Authors: Dany Khamsing, Solène Lebrun, Isabelle Fanget, Nathanaël Larochette, Christophe Tourain, Vincent de Sars, Maia Brunstein, Martin Oheim, Damien Carrel, François Darchen and Claire Desnos
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:112
  14. The morphological dynamics of astrocytes are altered in the hippocampus during memory induction. Astrocyte–neuron interactions on synapses are called tripartite synapses. These control the synaptic function in...

    Authors: Moonseok Choi, Sang-Min Lee, Dongsoo Kim, Heh-In Im, Hye-Sun Kim and Yun Ha Jeong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:111
  15. Cerebrovascular dysfunction is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the greatest risk factors for AD is the apolipoprotein E4 (E4) allele. The APOE4 genotype has been shown to negatively impa...

    Authors: Joseph O. Ojo, Jon M. Reed, Gogce Crynen, Prashanthi Vallabhaneni, James Evans, Benjamin Shackleton, Maximillian Eisenbaum, Charis Ringland, Anastasia Edsell, Michael Mullan, Fiona Crawford and Corbin Bachmeier
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:110
  16. Rabies virus (RV) is the most widely used vector for mapping neural circuits. Previous studies have shown that the RV glycoprotein can be a target to improve the retrograde transsynaptic tracing efficiency. Ho...

    Authors: Fan Jia, Li Li, Haizhou Liu, Pei Lv, Xiangwei Shi, Yang Wu, Chen Ling and Fuqiang Xu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:109
  17. Authors: Chunni Zhu, Tina Bilousova, Samantha Focht, Michael Jun, Chris Jean Elias, Mikhail Melnik, Sujyoti Chandra, Jesus Campagna, Whitaker Cohn, Asa Hatami, Patricia Spilman, Karen Hoppens Gylys and Varghese John
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:108

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:70

  18. Histone modifications are a key mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, which is critically involved in the consolidation of multiple forms of memory. However, the roles of histone m...

    Authors: Yong Gyu Kim, Myeong Seong Bak, Ahbin Kim, Yujin Kim, Yun-Cheol Chae, Ye Lee Kim, Yang-Sook Chun, Joon-Yong An, Sang-Beom Seo, Sang Jeong Kim and Yong-Seok Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:106
  19. Recently, a pathological condition called cochlear synaptopathy has been clarified, and as a disorder of the auditory nerve synapses that occurs prior to failure of hair cells, it has been recognized as a majo...

    Authors: Yutaka Koizumi, Kunio Mizutari, Satoko Kawauchi, Shunichi Sato, Akihiro Shiotani and Seiji Kakehata
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:105
  20. The perifornical area of the hypothalamus has been known as the center for the defense response, or fight-or-flight response, which is characterized by a concomitant rise in arterial blood pressure, heart rate...

    Authors: Akira Yamashita, Shunpei Moriya, Ryusei Nishi, Jun Kaminosono, Akihiro Yamanaka and Tomoyuki Kuwaki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:104
  21. Authors: Hyungju Park, Kyung-Seok Han, Jinsoo Seo, Jaekwang Lee, Shashank M. Dravid, Junsung Woo, Heejung Chun, Sukhee Cho, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Woohyun Koh, Bo-Eun Yoon, Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini, Guido Mannaioni, Stephen F. Traynelis, Yong Chul Bae…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:103

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:7

  22. Mitochondrial function is required for brain energy homeostasis and neuroadaptation. Recent studies demonstrate that cocaine affects mitochondrial dynamics and morphological characteristics within the nucleus ...

    Authors: Shannon L. Cole, Ramesh Chandra, Maya Harris, Ishan Patel, Torrance Wang, Hyunjae Kim, Leah Jensen, Scott J. Russo, Gustavo Turecki, Amy M. Gancarz-Kausch, David M. Dietz and Mary Kay Lobo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:101
  23. Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation pathway that regulates cellular homeostasis. It is constitutively active in neurons and controls the essential steps of neuronal development, leading to its dysfunction in ...

    Authors: Ji-Hye Kwak, You-kyung Lee, Mi-Hee Jun, Mootaek Roh, Hyunhyo Seo, Juhyun Lee, Kyungmin Lee and Jin-A Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:100
  24. Activation of spinal cord microglia contributes to the development of peripheral nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microglial function in neuropathic pain are ...

    Authors: Jiyun Peng, Min-Hee Yi, Heejin Jeong, Przemyslaw Peter McEwan, Jiaying Zheng, Gongxiong Wu, Shashank Ganatra, Yi Ren, Jason R. Richardson, Seog Bae Oh and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:99
  25. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their differentiated neurons (iPSC-neurons) are a widely used cellular model in the research of the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how well they captu...

    Authors: Leonard C. Steg, Gemma L. Shireby, Jennifer Imm, Jonathan P. Davies, Alice Franklin, Robert Flynn, Seema C. Namboori, Akshay Bhinge, Aaron R. Jeffries, Joe Burrage, Grant W. A. Neilson, Emma M. Walker, Leo W. Perfect, Jack Price, Grainne McAlonan, Deepak P. Srivastava…
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:98
  26. The formation and retention of hippocampus-dependent memories is impacted by neurogenesis, a process that involves the production of new neurons in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Recent studies demonstr...

    Authors: Gavin A. Scott, Dylan J. Terstege, Andrew J. Roebuck, Kelsea A. Gorzo, Alex P. Vu, John G. Howland and Jonathan R. Epp
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:97
  27. Reductions in the GABAergic neurotransmitter system exist across multiple brain regions in schizophrenia and encompass both pre- and postsynaptic components. While reduced midbrain GABAergic inhibitory neurotr...

    Authors: Tertia D. Purves-Tyson, Amelia M. Brown, Christin Weissleder, Debora A. Rothmond and Cynthia Shannon Weickert
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:96
  28. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterised by deficits in social interactions and repetitive behaviours. ASDs have a strong genetic basis with mutations involved in the dev...

    Authors: Yukti Vyas, Yewon Jung, Kevin Lee, Craig C. Garner and Johanna M. Montgomery
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:95
  29. The neuronal circuitry for pain signals has been intensively studied for decades. The external lateral parabrachial nucleus (PB) was shown to play a crucial role in nociceptive information processing. Previous...

    Authors: Mariko Ito, Masashi Nagase, Suguru Tohyama, Kaori Mikami, Fusao Kato and Ayako M. Watabe
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:94
  30. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Gi Seok Jeong, Joon Young Chang, Ji Soo Park, Seung-A Lee, DoYeun Park, Junsung Woo, Heeyoung An, C. Justin Lee and Sang-Hoon Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:93

    The original article was published in Molecular Brain 2015 8:17

  31. Functional lateralization of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress and emotional disorders, yet underlying gene expression changes remains unknown. Here, we report molecular signatures lateralize...

    Authors: Sujin Chae, Jiso Hong, Keunsoo Kang, Anna Shin, Dae-Gun Kim, Sinjeong Lee, Moo-young Kim, Inkyung Jung and Daesoo Kim
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:92
  32. N-glycanase 1 (NGLY1) deficiency is a rare inherited disorder characterized by developmental delay, hypolacrima or alacrima, seizure, intellectual disability, motor deficits, and other neurological symptoms. The....

    Authors: Makoto Asahina, Reiko Fujinawa, Hiroto Hirayama, Ryuichi Tozawa, Yasushi Kajii and Tadashi Suzuki
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:91

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:127

  33. Homer is a postsynaptic scaffold protein, which has long and short isoforms. The long form of Homer consists of an N-terminal target-binding domain and a C-terminal multimerization domain, linking multiple pro...

    Authors: Teiichi Furuichi, Yuko Muto, Tetsushi Sadakata, Yumi Sato, Kanehiro Hayashi, Yoko Shiraishi-Yamaguchi and Yo Shinoda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:90
  34. The type 1 and type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 receptors) are class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by endogenous lipids called endocannabinoids to modulate neuronal excitabi...

    Authors: Hajar Miranzadeh Mahabadi, Haseeb Bhatti, Robert B. Laprairie and Changiz Taghibiglou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:89
  35. The ACC is an important brain area for the processing of pain-related information. Studies of synaptic connections within the ACC provide an understanding of basic cellular and molecular mechanisms for brain f...

    Authors: Jung-Hyun Alex Lee, Zhuang Miao, Qi-Yu Chen, Xu-Hui Li and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:88
  36. Microglia, resident immunocompetent cells of the central nervous system, can display a range of reaction states and thereby exhibit distinct biological functions across development, adulthood and under disease...

    Authors: Lara Friess, Mathilde Cheray, Lily Keane, Kathleen Grabert and Bertrand Joseph
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:87
  37. Immunogold labeling allows localization of proteins at the electron microscopy (EM) level of resolution, and quantification of signals. The present paper summarizes methodological issues and experiences gained...

    Authors: Jung-Hwa Tao-Cheng, Virginia Crocker, Sandra Lara Moreira and Rita Azzam
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:86
  38. Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilin (PS) is highly expressed in the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable in AD. Previous studies of PS fu...

    Authors: Sang Hun Lee, Vadim Y. Bolshakov and Jie Shen
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:85
  39. Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability including hippocampal-dependent memory deficits. We have previously reported hippocampal mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) hy...

    Authors: Jesús David Urbano-Gámez, Juan José Casañas, Itziar Benito and María Luz Montesinos
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:84
  40. Mutation of the gene PARK7 (DJ1) causes monogenic autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) in humans. Subsequent alterations of PARK7 protein function lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, a major element in PD ...

    Authors: Hui Yung Chin, Michael Lardelli, Lyndsey Collins-Praino and Karissa Barthelson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:83
  41. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with aging and age-related hearing loss (AHL). However, the precise mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of hearing loss remain unclear. Cdk5 regulatory subunit-ass...

    Authors: Toru Miwa, Fan-yan Wei and Kazuhito Tomizawa
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:82
  42. The neurotransmitter serotonin, involved in the regulation of pain and emotion, is critically regulated by the 5‐HT1A autoreceptor and the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). Polymorphisms of these genes affect mood a...

    Authors: Isabel Ellerbrock, Angelica Sandström, Jeanette Tour, Silvia Fanton, Diana Kadetoff, Martin Schalling, Karin B. Jensen, Rouslan Sitnikov and Eva Kosek
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:81
  43. Homozygous mutations in the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase gene, GBA1, cause Gaucher’s disease (GD), while heterozygous mutations in GBA1 are a strong risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), whose pathological ha...

    Authors: Etsuro Nakanishi, Norihito Uemura, Hisako Akiyama, Masato Kinoshita, Sawamura Masanori, Yosuke Taruno, Hodaka Yamakado, Shu-ichi Matsuzawa, Shunichi Takeda, Yoshio Hirabayashi and Ryosuke Takahashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:80
  44. Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) have increased intracellular Ca2+ levels follo...

    Authors: Riku Kawanabe, Kohei Yoshihara, Izuho Hatada and Makoto Tsuda
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:79
  45. Reconsolidation has been considered a process in which a consolidated memory is turned into a labile stage. Within the reconsolidation window, the labile memory can be either erased or strengthened. Manipulati...

    Authors: Boren Lin, Khaled Alganem, Sinead M. O’Donovan, Zhen Jin, FarzanehSadat Naghavi, Olivia A. Miller, Tyler C. Ortyl, Ye Chun Ruan, Robert E. McCullumsmith and Jianyang Du
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:78
  46. mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors are highly expressed and functional in the early postnatal life, and are known to positively modulate NMDA receptor function. Here, we examined the expression of NMDA rec...

    Authors: Tiziana Imbriglio, Remy Verhaeghe, Nico Antenucci, Stefania Maccari, Giuseppe Battaglia, Ferdinando Nicoletti and Milena Cannella
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:77

    The Correction to this article has been published in Molecular Brain 2021 14:114

  47. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative fatal disorder in which motor neurons within the brain and spinal cord degenerate. A single infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) delays disease p...

    Authors: Hirotoshi Magota, Masanori Sasaki, Yuko Kataoka-Sasaki, Shinichi Oka, Ryo Ukai, Ryo Kiyose, Rie Onodera, Jeffery D. Kocsis and Osamu Honmou
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2021 14:76

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