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  1. Axonopathy is critical in the early pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Axonal swellings such as globules and spheroids are a dis...

    Authors: Akio Sekigawa, Masayo Fujita, Kazunari Sekiyama, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Taku Hatano, Edward Rockenstein, Albert R La Spada, Eliezer Masliah and Makoto Hashimoto
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:34
  2. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS, has been demonstrated to paradoxically produce excitation even in mature brain. However activity-dependent form of GABA excitation in cortical neurons has no...

    Authors: Jaekwang Lee, Junsung Woo, Oleg V Favorov, Mark Tommerdahl, C Justin Lee and Barry L Whitsel
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:33
  3. Memories are stored within neuronal ensembles in the brain. Modern genetic techniques can be used to not only visualize specific neuronal ensembles that encode memories (e.g., fear, craving) but also to select...

    Authors: Masanori Sakaguchi and Yasunori Hayashi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:32
  4. Mercury is a well-known neurotoxin implicated in a wide range of neurological or psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, depression, mood ...

    Authors: Fenglian Xu, Svetlana Farkas, Simone Kortbeek, Fang-Xiong Zhang, Lina Chen, Gerald W Zamponi and Naweed I Syed
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:30
  5. In the olfactory system of malacostracan crustaceans, axonal input from olfactory receptor neurons associated with aesthetascs on the animal’s first pair of antennae target primary processing centers in the me...

    Authors: Marta A Polanska, Oksana Tuchina, Hans Agricola, Bill S Hansson and Steffen Harzsch
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:29
  6. Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease that is caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch within Huntingtin (htt), the protein product of the HD gene. Alth...

    Authors: Shuqiu Zheng, Nima Ghitani, Jessica S Blackburn, Jeh-Ping Liu and Scott O Zeitlin
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:28
  7. Fragile X syndrome is caused by lack of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) due to silencing of the FMR1 gene. The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in the central nervous system contribute to ...

    Authors: Hansen Wang, Yoshikazu Morishita, Daiki Miura, Jose R Naranjo, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:27
  8. Action potentials at the neurons and graded signals at the synapses are primary codes in the brain. In terms of their functional interaction, the studies were focused on the influence of presynaptic spike patt...

    Authors: Jiandong Yu, Hao Qian and Jin-Hui Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:26
  9. The Notch signaling pathway has been shown to be involved in the development of the nervous system. Recent studies showed that Notch receptors and ligands are also expressed in the nervous system of adult anim...

    Authors: Yan-Yan Sun, Li Li, Xiao-Hua Liu, Nan Gu, Hai-Long Dong and Lize Xiong
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:23
  10. There is mounting evidence for a neurodevelopmental basis for disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, in which prenatal or early postnatal events may influence brain development and predispose the young to...

    Authors: Caroline M Forrest, Omari S Khalil, Mazura Pisar, Robert A Smith, Lynda Gail Darlington and Trevor W Stone
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:22
  11. The most frequent pain in patients with metastatic breast and prostate cancer is bone pain, which can be severe and difficult to treat. The mechanisms underlying this pain remain unclear. Here we investigated ...

    Authors: Xiao-Wei Wang, Shan Hu, Qi-Liang Mao-Ying, Qian Li, Chang-Jiang Yang, Hui Zhang, Wen-Li Mi, Gen-Cheng Wu and Yan-Qing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:21
  12. Anxiety is a prevalent psychological disorder, in which the atypical expression of certain genes and the abnormality of amygdala are involved. Intermediate processes between genetic defects and anxiety, pathop...

    Authors: Fengyu Zhang, Bei Liu, Zhuofan Lei and Jin-Hui Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:20
  13. Spinal glia, particularly microglia and astrocytes, are of the utmost importance in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. A recent study from our laboratory revealed that gabapentin, a recommended f...

    Authors: Jia-Le Yang, Bo Xu, Shuang-Shuang Li, Wei-Shi Zhang, Hua Xu, Xiao-Ming Deng and Yu-Qiu Zhang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:18
  14. Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that clinically manifests as motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms. There is currently no cure for this progress...

    Authors: Tarja A Juopperi, Woon Ryoung Kim, Cheng-Hsuan Chiang, Huimei Yu, Russell L Margolis, Christopher A Ross, Guo-li Ming and Hongjun Song
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:17
  15. It has been reported that remarkable and sustained activation of astrocytes and/or microglia occurs in cancer induced pain (CIP), which is different from neuropathic and inflammatory pain. The present study wa...

    Authors: Qi-Liang Mao-Ying, Xiao-Wei Wang, Chang-Jiang Yang, Xiu Li, Wen-Li Mi, Gen-Cheng Wu and Yan-Qing Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:16
  16. Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases that play key roles in programmed cell death (apoptosis). Mounting evidence in recent years shows that caspases also have important non-apoptotic functions in multip...

    Authors: Zheng Li and Morgan Sheng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:15
  17. Over-activation of AMPARs (α−amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype glutamate receptors) is implicated in excitotoxic neuronal death associated with acute brain insults, such as ischemic st...

    Authors: Min Wang, Shupeng Li, Hongyu Zhang, Lin Pei, Shengwei Zou, Frank JS Lee, Yu Tian Wang and Fang Liu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:13
  18. Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in neuronal oxidant defence. Depletion of cellular GSH is observed in neurodegenerative diseases and thereby contributes to the associated oxidative stress and Ca2+ dysre...

    Authors: Jillian C Belrose, Yu-Feng Xie, Lynn J Gierszewski, John F MacDonald and Michael F Jackson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:11
  19. Retinoid signaling pathways mediated by retinoic acid receptor (RAR)/retinoid × receptor (RXR)-mediated transcription play critical roles in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, recent studies have sh...

    Authors: Masanori Nomoto, Yohei Takeda, Shusaku Uchida, Koji Mitsuda, Hatsune Enomoto, Kaori Saito, Tesu Choi, Ayako M Watabe, Shizuka Kobayashi, Shoichi Masushige, Toshiya Manabe and Satoshi Kida
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:8
  20. Although the cortex has been extensively studied in long-term memory storage, less emphasis has been placed on immediate cortical contributions to fear memory formation. AMPA receptor plasticity is strongly im...

    Authors: Giannina Descalzi, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Valentina Mercaldo, Kohei Koga and Min Zhuo
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:6
  21. During permanent memory formation, recall of acquired place memories initially depends on the hippocampus and eventually become hippocampus-independent with time. It has been suggested that the quality of orig...

    Authors: Takashi Kitamura, Reiko Okubo-Suzuki, Noriko Takashima, Akiko Murayama, Toshiaki Hino, Hirofumi Nishizono, Satoshi Kida and Kaoru Inokuchi
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:5
  22. An important limiting factor in the development of centrally acting pharmaceuticals is the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Transport of therapeutic peptides through this highly protective physiological barrier rema...

    Authors: Karel Guillemyn, Patrycja Kleczkowska, Alexandre Novoa, Bart Vandormael, Isabelle Van den Eynde, Piotr Kosson, Muhammad Faheem Asim, Peter W Schiller, Mariana Spetea, Andrzej W Lipkowski, Dirk Tourwé and Steven Ballet
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:4
  23. Wnt proteins are emerging key regulators of the plasticity and functions of adult brains. However, the mechanisms by which the expression of Wnt proteins is regulated in neurons are unclear. Using cortical pri...

    Authors: Yichen Li, Bei Li, Xianzi Wan, Wei Zhang, Ling Zhong and Shao-Jun Tang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2012 5:1
  24. Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a calcium permeable non-selective cation channel that functions as a sensor of cellular redox status. Highly expressed within the CNS, we have previously de...

    Authors: Yu-Feng Xie, Jillian C Belrose, Gang Lei, Michael Tymianski, Yasuo Mori, John F MacDonald and Michael F Jackson
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:44
  25. Deletions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) accumulate to high levels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in normal aging and in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Human nig...

    Authors: Matthias Elstner, Sarina K Müller, Lars Leidolt, Christoph Laub, Lena Krieg, Falk Schlaudraff, Birgit Liss, Chris Morris, Douglass M Turnbull, Eliezer Masliah, Holger Prokisch, Thomas Klopstock and Andreas Bender
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:43
  26. A tonic form of synaptic inhibition occurs in discrete regions of the central nervous system and has an important role in controlling neuronal excitability. Recently, we reported that GABA present in astrocyte...

    Authors: Bo-Eun Yoon, Seonmi Jo, Junsung Woo, Jae-Hoon Lee, Taekeun Kim, Daesoo Kim and C Justin Lee
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:42
  27. The contribution of different GluN2 subunits of the N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to the induction of bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity is a controversial topic. As both supporting and refut...

    Authors: Thomas E Bartlett, Jie Lu and Yu Tian Wang
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:41
  28. The small non-coding microRNAs play an important role in development by regulating protein translation, but their involvement in axon guidance is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-134 (miR-13...

    Authors: Liang Han, Zhexing Wen, Rachel C Lynn, Marie-Laure Baudet, Christine E Holt, Yukio Sasaki, Gary J Bassell and James Q Zheng
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:40
  29. DIP (diaphanous interacting protein)/WISH (WASP interacting SH3 protein) is a protein involved in cytoskeletal signaling which regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics and/or microtubules mainly through the activ...

    Authors: Suhail Asrar, Keiko Kaneko, Keizo Takao, Jaina Negandhi, Makoto Matsui, Koji Shibasaki, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Robert V Harrison, Zhengping Jia, Michael W Salter, Makoto Tominaga and Tomoko Fukumi-Tominaga
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:39
  30. Uncovering the mechanisms that regulate dendritic spine morphology has been limited, in part, by the lack of efficient and unbiased methods for analyzing spines. Here, we describe an automated 3D spine morphom...

    Authors: Sharon A Swanger, Xiaodi Yao, Christina Gross and Gary J Bassell
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:38
  31. Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is involved in several fundamental cellular processes and human diseases. Many mammalian ESCRT proteins have multiple isoforms but their precise functio...

    Authors: Jin-A Lee, Lei Liu, Robyn Javier, Anatol C Kreitzer, Celine Delaloy and Fen-Biao Gao
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:37
  32. Over the past decade, the use and development of optical imaging techniques has advanced our understanding of synaptic plasticity by offering the spatial and temporal resolution necessary to examine long-term ...

    Authors: Zahid Padamsey and Nigel J Emptage
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:36
  33. Transplantation of human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) is a promising method to regenerate tissue from damage and recover function in various neurological diseases including brain ischemia. Galectin-1(...

    Authors: Junichi Yamane, Satoru Ishibashi, Masanori Sakaguchi, Toshihiko Kuroiwa, Yonehiro Kanemura, Masaya Nakamura, Hiroyuki Miyoshi, Kazunobu Sawamoto, Yoshiaki Toyama, Hidehiro Mizusawa and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:35
  34. The olfactory epithelium (OE) has a unique capacity for continuous neurogenesis, extending axons to the olfactory bulb with the assistance of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs). The OE and OECs have been belie...

    Authors: Hiroyuki Katoh, Shinsuke Shibata, Kimiko Fukuda, Momoka Sato, Etsuko Satoh, Narihito Nagoshi, Takeo Minematsu, Yumi Matsuzaki, Chihiro Akazawa, Yoshiaki Toyama, Masaya Nakamura and Hideyuki Okano
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:34
  35. Galectins are a 15 member family of carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been implicated in cancer, immunity, inflammation and development. While galectins are expressed in the central nervous system, littl...

    Authors: Masanori Sakaguchi, Maithe Arruda-Carvalho, Na Hyea Kang, Yoichi Imaizumi, Françoise Poirier, Hideyuki Okano and Paul W Frankland
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:33
  36. Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is expressed in multiple cell types in the CNS, with the most prominent expression in glial cells. PAR1 activation enhances excitatory synaptic transmission secondary to th...

    Authors: Kyung-Seok Han, Guido Mannaioni, Cecily E Hamill, Jaekwang Lee, Candice E Junge, C Justin Lee and Stephen F Traynelis
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:32
  37. Neuropathic pain is generally defined as a chronic pain state resulting from peripheral and/or central nerve injury. Effective treatment for neuropathic pain is still lacking, due in part to poor understanding...

    Authors: Min Zhuo, Gongxiong Wu and Long-Jun Wu
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:31
  38. Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investig...

    Authors: Katherine G Akers, Steven A Kushner, Ana T Leslie, Laura Clarke, Derek van der Kooy, Jason P Lerch and Paul W Frankland
    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:29

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