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  1. Staufens (Stau) are RNA-binding proteins involved in mRNA transport, localization, decay and translational control. The Staufen 1 (Stau1) isoform was recently identified as necessary for the protein synthesis-...

    Authors: Geneviève Lebeau, Luc DesGroseillers, Wayne Sossin and Jean-Claude Lacaille

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:22

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

  2. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of more than half of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. When activated by an ag...

    Authors: Javier González-Maeso

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:20

    Content type: Review

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  3. Gap junctions mediate the electrical coupling and intercellular communication between neighboring cells. Some gap junction proteins, namely connexins and pannexins in vertebrates, and innexins in invertebrates...

    Authors: Magali Bouhours, Michelle D Po, Shangbang Gao, Wesley Hung, Hang Li, John Georgiou, John C Roder and Mei Zhen

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:16

    Content type: Research

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  4. The specific genetic regulation of neural primordial cell determination is of great interest in stem cell biology. The Musashi1 (Msi1) protein, which belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of RNA-bindin...

    Authors: Satoshi Kawase, Takao Imai, Chikako Miyauchi-Hara, Kunio Yaguchi, Yoshinori Nishimoto, Shin-ichi Fukami, Yumi Matsuzaki, Atsushi Miyawaki, Shigeyoshi Itohara and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:14

    Content type: Research

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  5. In experimental models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), cerebellar hypoplasia and hypofoliation are associated with insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) resistance with impaired signaling thr...

    Authors: Suzanne M de la Monte, Ming Tong, Nathaniel Bowling and Peter Moskal

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:13

    Content type: Research

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  6. Sleep homeostasis is characterized by a positive correlation between sleep length and intensity with the duration of the prior waking period. A causal role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in sleep...

    Authors: Keri Martinowich, Robert J Schloesser, Dennisse V Jimenez, Daniel R Weinberger and Bai Lu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:11

    Content type: Research

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  7. The alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (αCaMKII) is a major synaptic kinase that undergoes autophosphorylation after NMDA receptor activation, switching the kinase into a calcium-independe...

    Authors: Elaine E Irvine, Arthur Danhiez, Kasia Radwanska, Charlotte Nassim, Walter Lucchesi, Emile Godaux, Laurence Ris and K Peter Giese

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:8

    Content type: Research

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  8. In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and generate new neurons throughout life. A multimodal protein, Galectin-1, is expressed in neura...

    Authors: Yoichi Imaizumi, Masanori Sakaguchi, Tsuyoshi Morishita, Mamoru Ito, Françoise Poirier, Kazunobu Sawamoto and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:7

    Content type: Research

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  9. Affective disorders, which include anxiety and depression, are highly prevalent and have overwhelming emotional and physical symptoms. Despite human brain imaging studies, which have implicated the prefrontal ...

    Authors: Susan S Kim, Hansen Wang, Xiang-Yao Li, Tao Chen, Valentina Mercaldo, Giannina Descalzi, Long-Jun Wu and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:6

    Content type: Research

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  10. Animals constantly receive and respond to external or internal stimuli, and these experiences are learned and memorized in their brains. In animals, this is a crucial feature for survival, by making it possibl...

    Authors: Nam-Kyung Yu, Sung Hee Baek and Bong-Kiun Kaang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:5

    Content type: Review

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  11. Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have...

    Authors: Yue Zhang, Hotaka Fukushima and Satoshi Kida

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:4

    Content type: Research

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  12. An important pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of extracellular senile plaques in the brain. Senile plaques are composed of aggregations of small peptides called β-amyloid (Aβ). ...

    Authors: Yun-wu Zhang, Robert Thompson, Han Zhang and Huaxi Xu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:3

    Content type: Review

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  13. Directed evolution of biomolecules such as DNA, RNA and proteins containing high diversity has emerged as an effective method to obtain molecules for various purposes. In the recent past, proteins from non-imm...

    Authors: Mohammed Naimuddin, Suzuko Kobayashi, Chihiro Tsutsui, Masayuki Machida, Naoto Nemoto, Takafumi Sakai and Tai Kubo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2011 4:2

    Content type: Methodology

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  14. The vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) loads GABA and glycine from the neuronal cytoplasm into synaptic vesicles. To address functional importance of VGAT during embryonic development, we generated global VGAT ...

    Authors: Kenzi Saito, Toshikazu Kakizaki, Ryotaro Hayashi, Hiroshi Nishimaru, Tomonori Furukawa, Yoichi Nakazato, Shigeo Takamori, Satoe Ebihara, Masakazu Uematsu, Masayoshi Mishina, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Minesuke Yokoyama, Shiro Konishi, Koichi Inoue, Atsuo Fukuda, Manabu Fukumoto…

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:40

    Content type: Research

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  15. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the major ASIC subunit determining acid-activated currents in brain neurons. Recent studies show that ASIC1a play critical roles in acid-induced cell toxicity. While the...

    Authors: Wenying Jin, Chong Shen, Lan Jing, Xiang-ming Zha and Jun Xia

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:39

    Content type: Research

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  16. Concentrations of extracellular divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) fall substantially during intensive synaptic transmission as well as during some pathophysiological conditions such as epilepsy and brain ischemia....

    Authors: Xuanmao Chen, Tomohiro Numata, Minghua Li, Yasuo Mori, Beverley A Orser, Michael F Jackson, Zhi-Gang Xiong and John F MacDonald

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:38

    Content type: Research

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  17. Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. There is growing evidence implicating the glutamate system in the pathophysiology and treatment of anxiety disorders, thou...

    Authors: Mina Delawary, Tohru Tezuka, Yuji Kiyama, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Takeshi Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Ryota Hashimoto, Hisashi Umemori, Toshiya Manabe, Tadashi Yamamoto and Takanobu Nakazawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:37

    Content type: Research

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  18. Math5-null mutation results in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and in a concurrent increase of amacrine and cone cells. However, it remains unclear whether there is a cell fate switch of Math5-lineage c...

    Authors: Liang Feng, Zheng-hua Xie, Qian Ding, Xiaoling Xie, Richard T Libby and Lin Gan

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:36

    Content type: Research

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  19. In recent years, several lines of evidence have shown an increase in Parkinson's disease prevalence in rural environments where pesticides are heavily used. Although, the underlying mechanism for neuronal dege...

    Authors: Binukumar BK, Amanjit Bal, Ramesh JL Kandimalla and Kiran Dip Gill

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:35

    Content type: Research

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  20. It is hypothesized that complex interactions between multiple environmental factors and genetic factors are implicated in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly unders...

    Authors: Latha Devi, Melissa J Alldred, Stephen D Ginsberg and Masuo Ohno

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:34

    Content type: Research

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  21. Huntington's disease results from expansion of a glutamine repeat (>36 glutamines) in the N-terminal region of huntingtin (htt) and is characterized by preferential neurodegeneration in the striatum of the bra...

    Authors: Chuan-En Wang, Shihua Li and Xiao-Jiang Li

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:33

    Content type: Short report

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  22. Aβ peptides derived from the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein are widely believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. A common way to study the impact of these molecul...

    Authors: Jonathan Witton, Jon T Brown, Matthew W Jones and Andrew D Randall

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:32

    Content type: Research

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  23. While several mouse strains have recently been developed for tracing neural crest or oligodendrocyte lineages, each strain has inherent limitations. The connection between human SOX10 mutations and neural crest c...

    Authors: Shinsuke Shibata, Akimasa Yasuda, Francois Renault-Mihara, Satoshi Suyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Takayoshi Inoue, Yukiko U Inoue, Narihito Nagoshi, Momoka Sato, Masaya Nakamura, Chihiro Akazawa and Hideyuki Okano

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:31

    Content type: Research

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  24. Zinc dyshomeostasis has been recognized as an important mechanism for cell death in acute brain injury. An increase in the level of free or histochemically reactive zinc in astrocytes and neurons is considered...

    Authors: Sook-Jeong Lee and Jae-Young Koh

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:30

    Content type: Review

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  25. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV) phosphorylates the major transcription factor, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), which plays key roles in synaptic plasticity and memory cons...

    Authors: Hiroki Toyoda, Ming-Gao Zhao, Valentina Mercaldo, Tao Chen, Giannina Descalzi, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:27

    Content type: Research

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  26. New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell diff...

    Authors: Koji Ohira,, Hideo Hagihara,, Keiko Toyama,, Keizo Takao, Masaaki Kanai, Hiroshi Funakoshi, Toshikazu Nakamura and Tsuyoshi Miyakawa

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:26

    Content type: Research

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  27. All antipsychotics work via dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs), suggesting a critical role for D2Rs in psychosis; however, there is little evidence for a change in receptor number or pharmacological nature of D2Rs. ...

    Authors: Min Wang, Lin Pei, Paul J Fletcher, Shitij Kapur, Philip Seeman and Fang Liu

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:25

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  28. K+ channel interacting protein 1 (KChIP1) is a neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein that interacts with multiple intracellular molecules. Its physiological function, however, remains largely unknown. We report ....

    Authors: Kun Xia, Hui Xiong, Yeonsook Shin, Danling Wang, Tom Deerinck, Hiroto Takahashi, Mark H Ellisman, Stuart A Lipton, Gang Tong, Giannina Descalzi, Dongxian Zhang, Min Zhuo and Zhuohua Zhang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:23

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Growth factor-induced receptor dimerization and cross-phosphorylation are hallmarks of signal transduction via receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can activate RTKs through a ...

    Authors: Sum Shing Chi, Sandra M Vetiska, Robin S Gill, Marilyn S Hsiung, Fang Liu and Hubert HM Van Tol

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:22

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  30. Synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices have been studied during ageing of a double transgenic mouse strain relevant to early-onset familial Alzheimer's d...

    Authors: Stephen M Fitzjohn, Frederick Kuenzi, Robin A Morton, Thomas W Rosahl, Huw Lewis, David Smith, Guy R Seabrook and Graham L Collingridge

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:21

    Content type: Research

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  31. Interactions between dopamine and glutamate in the prefrontal cortex are essential for cognitive functions such as working memory. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor functions by dopamine D...

    Authors: Jian-Li Hu, Gang Liu, Yan-Chun Li, Wen-Jun Gao and Yue-Qiao Huang

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:20

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  32. The establishment of tissue architecture in the nervous system requires the proper migration and positioning of newly born neurons during embryonic development. Defects in nuclear translocation, a key process ...

    Authors: Tarek Houalla, Lei Shi, Donald J van Meyel and Yong Rao

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:19

    Content type: Research

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  33. Huntingtin (htt) is a multi-domain protein of 350 kDa that is mutated in Huntington's disease (HD) but whose function is yet to be fully understood. This absence of information is due in part to the difficulty...

    Authors: Raúl Pardo, Maria Molina-Calavita, Ghislaine Poizat, Guy Keryer, Sandrine Humbert and Frédéric Saudou

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:17

    Content type: Research

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  34. Mounting evidence suggests that neural oscillations are related to the learning and consolidation of newly formed memory in the mammalian brain. Four to seven Hertz (4-7 Hz) oscillations in the prefrontal cort...

    Authors: Hendrik W Steenland, Vincent Wu, Hotaka Fukushima, Satoshi Kida and Min Zhuo

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:16

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sp...

    Authors: Solomon Raju Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Xiu Luo, Dola Das, Ajay Singh and Neena Singh

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:14

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Neurogenesis occurs in the adult hippocampus of various animal species. A substantial fraction of newly generated neurons die before they mature, and the survival rate of new neurons are regulated in an experi...

    Authors: Takashi Kitamura, Yoshito Saitoh, Akiko Murayama, Hiroyuki Sugiyama and Kaoru Inokuchi

    Citation: Molecular Brain 2010 3:13

    Content type: Short report

    Published on:

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